Scalar Functions

Math Functions

abs

Returns the absolute value of a number.

abs(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

acos

Returns the arc cosine or inverse cosine of a number.

acos(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

acosh

Returns the area hyperbolic cosine or inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number.

acosh(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

asin

Returns the arc sine or inverse sine of a number.

asin(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

asinh

Returns the area hyperbolic sine or inverse hyperbolic sine of a number.

asinh(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

atan

Returns the arc tangent or inverse tangent of a number.

atan(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

atanh

Returns the area hyperbolic tangent or inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number.

atanh(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

atan2

Returns the arc tangent or inverse tangent of expression_y / expression_x.

atan2(expression_y, expression_x)

Arguments

  • expression_y: First numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

  • expression_x: Second numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

cbrt

Returns the cube root of a number.

cbrt(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

ceil

Returns the nearest integer greater than or equal to a number.

ceil(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

cos

Returns the cosine of a number.

cos(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

cosh

Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number.

cosh(numeric_expression)

degrees

Converts radians to degrees.

degrees(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

exp

Returns the base-e exponential of a number.

exp(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to use as the exponent. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

factorial

Factorial. Returns 1 if value is less than 2.

factorial(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

floor

Returns the nearest integer less than or equal to a number.

floor(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

gcd

Returns the greatest common divisor of expression_x and expression_y. Returns 0 if both inputs are zero.

gcd(expression_x, expression_y)

Arguments

  • expression_x: First numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

  • expression_y: Second numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

isnan

Returns true if a given number is +NaN or -NaN otherwise returns false.

isnan(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

iszero

Returns true if a given number is +0.0 or -0.0 otherwise returns false.

iszero(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

lcm

Returns the least common multiple of expression_x and expression_y. Returns 0 if either input is zero.

lcm(expression_x, expression_y)

Arguments

  • expression_x: First numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

  • expression_y: Second numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

ln

Returns the natural logarithm of a number.

ln(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

log

Returns the base-x logarithm of a number. Can either provide a specified base, or if omitted then takes the base-10 of a number.

log(base, numeric_expression)
log(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • base: Base numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

log10

Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number.

log10(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

log2

Returns the base-2 logarithm of a number.

log2(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

nanvl

Returns the first argument if it’s not NaN. Returns the second argument otherwise.

nanvl(expression_x, expression_y)

Arguments

  • expression_x: Numeric expression to return if it’s not NaN. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

  • expression_y: Numeric expression to return if the first expression is NaN. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

pi

Returns an approximate value of π.

pi()

power

Returns a base expression raised to the power of an exponent.

power(base, exponent)

Arguments

  • base: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

  • exponent: Exponent numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

Aliases

  • pow

pow

Alias of power.

radians

Converts degrees to radians.

radians(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

random

Returns a random float value in the range [0, 1). The random seed is unique to each row.

random()

round

Rounds a number to the nearest integer.

round(numeric_expression[, decimal_places])

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

  • decimal_places: Optional. The number of decimal places to round to. Defaults to 0.

signum

Returns the sign of a number. Negative numbers return -1. Zero and positive numbers return 1.

signum(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

sin

Returns the sine of a number.

sin(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

sinh

Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number.

sinh(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

sqrt

Returns the square root of a number.

sqrt(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

tan

Returns the tangent of a number.

tan(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

tanh

Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number.

tanh(numeric_expression)

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

trunc

Truncates a number to a whole number or truncated to the specified decimal places.

trunc(numeric_expression[, decimal_places])

Arguments

  • numeric_expression: Numeric expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

  • decimal_places: Optional. The number of decimal places to truncate to. Defaults to 0 (truncate to a whole number). If decimal_places is a positive integer, truncates digits to the right of the decimal point. If decimal_places is a negative integer, replaces digits to the left of the decimal point with 0.

Conditional Functions

coalesce

Returns the first of its arguments that is not null. Returns null if all arguments are null. This function is often used to substitute a default value for null values.

coalesce(expression1[, ..., expression_n])

Arguments

  • expression1, expression_n: Expression to use if previous expressions are null. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators. Pass as many expression arguments as necessary.

nullif

Returns null if expression1 equals expression2; otherwise it returns expression1. This can be used to perform the inverse operation of coalesce.

nullif(expression1, expression2)

Arguments

  • expression1: Expression to compare and return if equal to expression2. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

  • expression2: Expression to compare to expression1. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

nvl

Returns expression2 if expression1 is NULL; otherwise it returns expression1.

nvl(expression1, expression2)

Arguments

  • expression1: return if expression1 not is NULL. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

  • expression2: return if expression1 is NULL. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

nvl2

Returns expression2 if expression1 is not NULL; otherwise it returns expression3.

nvl2(expression1, expression2, expression3)

Arguments

  • expression1: conditional expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

  • expression2: return if expression1 is not NULL. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

  • expression3: return if expression1 is NULL. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

ifnull

Alias of nvl.

String Functions

ascii

Returns the ASCII value of the first character in a string.

ascii(str)

Arguments

  • str: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

Related functions: chr

bit_length

Returns the bit length of a string.

bit_length(str)

Arguments

  • str: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

Related functions: length, octet_length

btrim

Trims the specified trim string from the start and end of a string. If no trim string is provided, all whitespace is removed from the start and end of the input string.

btrim(str[, trim_str])

Arguments

  • str: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • trim_str: String expression to trim from the beginning and end of the input string. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators. Default is whitespace characters.

Related functions: ltrim, rtrim

Aliases

  • trim

char_length

Alias of length.

character_length

Alias of length.

concat

Concatenates multiple strings together.

concat(str[, ..., str_n])

Arguments

  • str: String expression to concatenate. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • str_n: Subsequent string column or literal string to concatenate.

Related functions: concat_ws

concat_ws

Concatenates multiple strings together with a specified separator.

concat(separator, str[, ..., str_n])

Arguments

  • separator: Separator to insert between concatenated strings.

  • str: String expression to concatenate. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • str_n: Subsequent string column or literal string to concatenate.

Related functions: concat

chr

Returns the character with the specified ASCII or Unicode code value.

chr(expression)

Arguments

  • expression: Expression containing the ASCII or Unicode code value to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic or string operators.

Related functions: ascii

ends_with

Tests if a string ends with a substring.

ends_with(str, substr)

Arguments

  • str: String expression to test. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • substr: Substring to test for.

initcap

Capitalizes the first character in each word in the input string. Words are delimited by non-alphanumeric characters.

initcap(str)

Arguments

  • str: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

Related functions: lower, upper

instr

Alias of strpos.

Arguments

  • str: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • substr: Substring expression to search for. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

left

Returns a specified number of characters from the left side of a string.

left(str, n)

Arguments

  • str: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • n: Number of characters to return.

Related functions: right

length

Returns the number of characters in a string.

length(str)

Arguments

  • str: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

Aliases

  • char_length

  • character_length

Related functions: bit_length, octet_length

lower

Converts a string to lower-case.

lower(str)

Arguments

  • str: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

Related functions: initcap, upper

lpad

Pads the left side of a string with another string to a specified string length.

lpad(str, n[, padding_str])

Arguments

  • str: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • n: String length to pad to.

  • padding_str: String expression to pad with. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators. Default is a space.

Related functions: rpad

ltrim

Trims the specified trim string from the beginning of a string. If no trim string is provided, all whitespace is removed from the start of the input string.

ltrim(str[, trim_str])

Arguments

  • str: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • trim_str: String expression to trim from the beginning of the input string. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators. Default is whitespace characters.

Related functions: btrim, rtrim

octet_length

Returns the length of a string in bytes.

octet_length(str)

Arguments

  • str: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

Related functions: bit_length, length

repeat

Returns a string with an input string repeated a specified number.

repeat(str, n)

Arguments

  • str: String expression to repeat. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • n: Number of times to repeat the input string.

replace

Replaces all occurrences of a specified substring in a string with a new substring.

replace(str, substr, replacement)

Arguments

  • str: String expression to repeat. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • substr: Substring expression to replace in the input string. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • replacement: Replacement substring expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

reverse

Reverses the character order of a string.

reverse(str)

Arguments

  • str: String expression to repeat. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

rpad

Pads the right side of a string with another string to a specified string length.

rpad(str, n[, padding_str])

Arguments

  • str: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • n: String length to pad to.

  • padding_str: String expression to pad with. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators. Default is a space.

Related functions: lpad

rtrim

Trims the specified trim string from the end of a string. If no trim string is provided, all whitespace is removed from the end of the input string.

rtrim(str[, trim_str])

Arguments

  • str: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • trim_str: String expression to trim from the end of the input string. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators. Default is whitespace characters.

Related functions: btrim, ltrim

split_part

Splits a string based on a specified delimiter and returns the substring in the specified position.

split_part(str, delimiter, pos)

Arguments

  • str: String expression to spit. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • delimiter: String or character to split on.

  • pos: Position of the part to return.

starts_with

Tests if a string starts with a substring.

starts_with(str, substr)

Arguments

  • str: String expression to test. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • substr: Substring to test for.

strpos

Returns the starting position of a specified substring in a string. Positions begin at 1. If the substring does not exist in the string, the function returns 0.

strpos(str, substr)

Arguments

  • str: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • substr: Substring expression to search for. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

Aliases

  • instr

substr

Extracts a substring of a specified number of characters from a specific starting position in a string.

substr(str, start_pos[, length])

Arguments

  • str: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • start_pos: Character position to start the substring at. The first character in the string has a position of 1.

  • length: Number of characters to extract. If not specified, returns the rest of the string after the start position.

translate

Translates characters in a string to specified translation characters.

translate(str, chars, translation)
  • str: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • chars: Characters to translate.

  • translation: Translation characters. Translation characters replace only characters at the same position in the chars string.

to_hex

Converts an integer to a hexadecimal string.

to_hex(int)

Arguments

  • int: Integer expression to convert. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

trim

Alias of btrim.

upper

Converts a string to upper-case.

upper(str)

Arguments

  • str: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

Related functions: initcap, lower

uuid

Returns UUID v4 string value which is unique per row.

uuid()

overlay

Returns the string which is replaced by another string from the specified position and specified count length. For example, overlay('Txxxxas' placing 'hom' from 2 for 4) Thomas

overlay(str PLACING substr FROM pos [FOR count])

Arguments

  • str: String expression to operate on.

  • substr: the string to replace part of str.

  • pos: the start position to replace of str.

  • count: the count of characters to be replaced from start position of str. If not specified, will use substr length instead.

levenshtein

Returns the Levenshtein distance between the two given strings. For example, levenshtein('kitten', 'sitting') = 3

levenshtein(str1, str2)

Arguments

  • str1: String expression to compute Levenshtein distance with str2.

  • str2: String expression to compute Levenshtein distance with str1.

substr_index

Returns the substring from str before count occurrences of the delimiter delim. If count is positive, everything to the left of the final delimiter (counting from the left) is returned. If count is negative, everything to the right of the final delimiter (counting from the right) is returned. For example, substr_index('www.apache.org', '.', 1) = www, substr_index('www.apache.org', '.', -1) = org

substr_index(str, delim, count)

Arguments

  • str: String expression to operate on.

  • delim: the string to find in str to split str.

  • count: The number of times to search for the delimiter. Can be both a positive or negative number.

find_in_set

Returns a value in the range of 1 to N if the string str is in the string list strlist consisting of N substrings. For example, find_in_set('b', 'a,b,c,d') = 2

find_in_set(str, strlist)

Arguments

  • str: String expression to find in strlist.

  • strlist: A string list is a string composed of substrings separated by , characters.

Binary String Functions

encode

Encode binary data into a textual representation.

encode(expression, format)

Arguments

  • expression: Expression containing string or binary data

  • format: Supported formats are: base64, hex

Related functions: decode

decode

Decode binary data from textual representation in string.

decode(expression, format)

Arguments

  • expression: Expression containing encoded string data

  • format: Same arguments as encode

Related functions: encode

Regular Expression Functions

Apache DataFusion uses a PCRE-like regular expression syntax (minus support for several features including look-around and backreferences). The following regular expression functions are supported:

regexp_like

Returns true if a regular expression has at least one match in a string, false otherwise.

regexp_like(str, regexp[, flags])

Arguments

  • str: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • regexp: Regular expression to test against the string expression. Can be a constant, column, or function.

  • flags: Optional regular expression flags that control the behavior of the regular expression. The following flags are supported:

    • i: case-insensitive: letters match both upper and lower case

    • m: multi-line mode: ^ and $ match begin/end of line

    • s: allow . to match \n

    • R: enables CRLF mode: when multi-line mode is enabled, \r\n is used

    • U: swap the meaning of x* and x*?

Example

select regexp_like('Köln', '[a-zA-Z]ö[a-zA-Z]{2}');
+--------------------------------------------------------+
| regexp_like(Utf8("Köln"),Utf8("[a-zA-Z]ö[a-zA-Z]{2}")) |
+--------------------------------------------------------+
| true                                                   |
+--------------------------------------------------------+
SELECT regexp_like('aBc', '(b|d)', 'i');
+--------------------------------------------------+
| regexp_like(Utf8("aBc"),Utf8("(b|d)"),Utf8("i")) |
+--------------------------------------------------+
| true                                             |
+--------------------------------------------------+

Additional examples can be found here

regexp_match

Returns a list of regular expression matches in a string.

regexp_match(str, regexp[, flags])

Arguments

  • str: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • regexp: Regular expression to match against. Can be a constant, column, or function.

  • flags: Optional regular expression flags that control the behavior of the regular expression. The following flags are supported:

    • i: case-insensitive: letters match both upper and lower case

    • m: multi-line mode: ^ and $ match begin/end of line

    • s: allow . to match \n

    • R: enables CRLF mode: when multi-line mode is enabled, \r\n is used

    • U: swap the meaning of x* and x*?

Example

select regexp_match('Köln', '[a-zA-Z]ö[a-zA-Z]{2}');
+---------------------------------------------------------+
| regexp_match(Utf8("Köln"),Utf8("[a-zA-Z]ö[a-zA-Z]{2}")) |
+---------------------------------------------------------+
| [Köln]                                                  |
+---------------------------------------------------------+
SELECT regexp_match('aBc', '(b|d)', 'i');
+---------------------------------------------------+
| regexp_match(Utf8("aBc"),Utf8("(b|d)"),Utf8("i")) |
+---------------------------------------------------+
| [B]                                               |
+---------------------------------------------------+

Additional examples can be found here

regexp_replace

Replaces substrings in a string that match a regular expression.

regexp_replace(str, regexp, replacement[, flags])

Arguments

  • str: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • regexp: Regular expression to match against. Can be a constant, column, or function.

  • replacement: Replacement string expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • flags: Optional regular expression flags that control the behavior of the regular expression. The following flags are supported:

    • g: (global) Search globally and don’t return after the first match

    • i: case-insensitive: letters match both upper and lower case

    • m: multi-line mode: ^ and $ match begin/end of line

    • s: allow . to match \n

    • R: enables CRLF mode: when multi-line mode is enabled, \r\n is used

    • U: swap the meaning of x* and x*?

Example

SELECT regexp_replace('foobarbaz', 'b(..)', 'X\\1Y', 'g');
+------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| regexp_replace(Utf8("foobarbaz"),Utf8("b(..)"),Utf8("X\1Y"),Utf8("g")) |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| fooXarYXazY                                                            |
+------------------------------------------------------------------------+
SELECT regexp_replace('aBc', '(b|d)', 'Ab\\1a', 'i');
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| regexp_replace(Utf8("aBc"),Utf8("(b|d)"),Utf8("Ab\1a"),Utf8("i")) |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| aAbBac                                                            |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+

Additional examples can be found here

position

Returns the position of substr in origstr (counting from 1). If substr does not appear in origstr, return 0.

position(substr in origstr)

Arguments

  • substr: The pattern string.

  • origstr: The model string.

Time and Date Functions

now

Returns the current UTC timestamp.

The now() return value is determined at query time and will return the same timestamp, no matter when in the query plan the function executes.

now()

current_date

Returns the current UTC date.

The current_date() return value is determined at query time and will return the same date, no matter when in the query plan the function executes.

current_date()

Aliases

  • today

today

Alias of current_date.

current_time

Returns the current UTC time.

The current_time() return value is determined at query time and will return the same time, no matter when in the query plan the function executes.

current_time()

date_bin

Calculates time intervals and returns the start of the interval nearest to the specified timestamp. Use date_bin to downsample time series data by grouping rows into time-based “bins” or “windows” and applying an aggregate or selector function to each window.

For example, if you “bin” or “window” data into 15 minute intervals, an input timestamp of 2023-01-01T18:18:18Z will be updated to the start time of the 15 minute bin it is in: 2023-01-01T18:15:00Z.

date_bin(interval, expression, origin-timestamp)

Arguments

  • interval: Bin interval.

  • expression: Time expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function.

  • origin-timestamp: Optional. Starting point used to determine bin boundaries. If not specified defaults 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z (the UNIX epoch in UTC).

The following intervals are supported:

  • nanoseconds

  • microseconds

  • milliseconds

  • seconds

  • minutes

  • hours

  • days

  • weeks

  • months

  • years

  • century

date_trunc

Truncates a timestamp value to a specified precision.

date_trunc(precision, expression)

Arguments

  • precision: Time precision to truncate to. The following precisions are supported:

    • year / YEAR

    • quarter / QUARTER

    • month / MONTH

    • week / WEEK

    • day / DAY

    • hour / HOUR

    • minute / MINUTE

    • second / SECOND

  • expression: Time expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function.

Aliases

  • datetrunc

datetrunc

Alias of date_trunc.

date_part

Returns the specified part of the date as an integer.

date_part(part, expression)

Arguments

  • part: Part of the date to return. The following date parts are supported:

    • year

    • quarter (emits value in inclusive range [1, 4] based on which quartile of the year the date is in)

    • month

    • week (week of the year)

    • day (day of the month)

    • hour

    • minute

    • second

    • millisecond

    • microsecond

    • nanosecond

    • dow (day of the week)

    • doy (day of the year)

    • epoch (seconds since Unix epoch)

  • expression: Time expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function.

Aliases

  • datepart

datepart

Alias of date_part.

extract

Returns a sub-field from a time value as an integer.

extract(field FROM source)

Equivalent to calling date_part('field', source). For example, these are equivalent:

extract(day FROM '2024-04-13'::date)
date_part('day', '2024-04-13'::date)

See date_part.

make_date

Make a date from year/month/day component parts.

make_date(year, month, day)

Arguments

  • year: Year to use when making the date. Can be a constant, column or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

  • month: Month to use when making the date. Can be a constant, column or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

  • day: Day to use when making the date. Can be a constant, column or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

Example

> select make_date(2023, 1, 31);
+-------------------------------------------+
| make_date(Int64(2023),Int64(1),Int64(31)) |
+-------------------------------------------+
| 2023-01-31                                |
+-------------------------------------------+
> select make_date('2023', '01', '31');
+-----------------------------------------------+
| make_date(Utf8("2023"),Utf8("01"),Utf8("31")) |
+-----------------------------------------------+
| 2023-01-31                                    |
+-----------------------------------------------+

Additional examples can be found here

to_char

Returns a string representation of a date, time, timestamp or duration based on a Chrono format. Unlike the PostgreSQL equivalent of this function numerical formatting is not supported.

to_char(expression, format)

Arguments

  • expression: Expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function that results in a date, time, timestamp or duration.

  • format: A Chrono format string to use to convert the expression.

Example

> > select to_char('2023-03-01'::date, '%d-%m-%Y');
+----------------------------------------------+
| to_char(Utf8("2023-03-01"),Utf8("%d-%m-%Y")) |
+----------------------------------------------+
| 01-03-2023                                   |
+----------------------------------------------+

Additional examples can be found here

Aliases

  • date_format

to_date

Converts a value to a date (YYYY-MM-DD). Supports strings, integer and double types as input. Strings are parsed as YYYY-MM-DD (e.g. ‘2023-07-20’) if no Chrono formats are provided. Integers and doubles are interpreted as days since the unix epoch (1970-01-01T00:00:00Z). Returns the corresponding date.

Note: to_date returns Date32. The supported range for integer input is between -96465293 and 95026237. Supported range for string input is between 1677-09-21 and 2262-04-11 exclusive. To parse dates outside of that range use a Chrono format.

to_date(expression[, ..., format_n])

Arguments

  • expression: Expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

  • format_n: Optional Chrono format strings to use to parse the expression. Formats will be tried in the order they appear with the first successful one being returned. If none of the formats successfully parse the expression an error will be returned.

Example

> select to_date('2023-01-31');
+-----------------------------+
| to_date(Utf8("2023-01-31")) |
+-----------------------------+
| 2023-01-31                  |
+-----------------------------+
> select to_date('2023/01/31', '%Y-%m-%d', '%Y/%m/%d');
+---------------------------------------------------------------+
| to_date(Utf8("2023/01/31"),Utf8("%Y-%m-%d"),Utf8("%Y/%m/%d")) |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+
| 2023-01-31                                                    |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+

Additional examples can be found here

to_timestamp

Converts a value to a timestamp (YYYY-MM-DDT00:00:00Z). Supports strings, integer, unsigned integer, and double types as input. Strings are parsed as RFC3339 (e.g. ‘2023-07-20T05:44:00’) if no [Chrono formats] are provided. Integers, unsigned integers, and doubles are interpreted as seconds since the unix epoch (1970-01-01T00:00:00Z). Returns the corresponding timestamp.

Note: to_timestamp returns Timestamp(Nanosecond). The supported range for integer input is between -9223372037 and 9223372036. Supported range for string input is between 1677-09-21T00:12:44.0 and 2262-04-11T23:47:16.0. Please use to_timestamp_seconds for the input outside of supported bounds.

to_timestamp(expression[, ..., format_n])

Arguments

  • expression: Expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

  • format_n: Optional Chrono format strings to use to parse the expression. Formats will be tried in the order they appear with the first successful one being returned. If none of the formats successfully parse the expression an error will be returned.

Example

> select to_timestamp('2023-01-31T09:26:56.123456789-05:00');
+-----------------------------------------------------------+
| to_timestamp(Utf8("2023-01-31T09:26:56.123456789-05:00")) |
+-----------------------------------------------------------+
| 2023-01-31T14:26:56.123456789                             |
+-----------------------------------------------------------+
> select to_timestamp('03:59:00.123456789 05-17-2023', '%c', '%+', '%H:%M:%S%.f %m-%d-%Y');
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| to_timestamp(Utf8("03:59:00.123456789 05-17-2023"),Utf8("%c"),Utf8("%+"),Utf8("%H:%M:%S%.f %m-%d-%Y")) |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 2023-05-17T03:59:00.123456789                                                                          |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Additional examples can be found here

to_timestamp_millis

Converts a value to a timestamp (YYYY-MM-DDT00:00:00.000Z). Supports strings, integer, and unsigned integer types as input. Strings are parsed as RFC3339 (e.g. ‘2023-07-20T05:44:00’) if no Chrono formats are provided. Integers and unsigned integers are interpreted as milliseconds since the unix epoch (1970-01-01T00:00:00Z). Returns the corresponding timestamp.

to_timestamp_millis(expression[, ..., format_n])

Arguments

  • expression: Expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

  • format_n: Optional Chrono format strings to use to parse the expression. Formats will be tried in the order they appear with the first successful one being returned. If none of the formats successfully parse the expression an error will be returned.

Example

> select to_timestamp_millis('2023-01-31T09:26:56.123456789-05:00');
+------------------------------------------------------------------+
| to_timestamp_millis(Utf8("2023-01-31T09:26:56.123456789-05:00")) |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 2023-01-31T14:26:56.123                                          |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+
> select to_timestamp_millis('03:59:00.123456789 05-17-2023', '%c', '%+', '%H:%M:%S%.f %m-%d-%Y');
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| to_timestamp_millis(Utf8("03:59:00.123456789 05-17-2023"),Utf8("%c"),Utf8("%+"),Utf8("%H:%M:%S%.f %m-%d-%Y")) |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 2023-05-17T03:59:00.123                                                                                       |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Additional examples can be found here

to_timestamp_micros

Converts a value to a timestamp (YYYY-MM-DDT00:00:00.000000Z). Supports strings, integer, and unsigned integer types as input. Strings are parsed as RFC3339 (e.g. ‘2023-07-20T05:44:00’) if no Chrono formats are provided. Integers and unsigned integers are interpreted as microseconds since the unix epoch (1970-01-01T00:00:00Z) Returns the corresponding timestamp.

to_timestamp_micros(expression[, ..., format_n])

Arguments

  • expression: Expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

  • format_n: Optional Chrono format strings to use to parse the expression. Formats will be tried in the order they appear with the first successful one being returned. If none of the formats successfully parse the expression an error will be returned.

Example

> select to_timestamp_micros('2023-01-31T09:26:56.123456789-05:00');
+------------------------------------------------------------------+
| to_timestamp_micros(Utf8("2023-01-31T09:26:56.123456789-05:00")) |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 2023-01-31T14:26:56.123456                                       |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+
> select to_timestamp_micros('03:59:00.123456789 05-17-2023', '%c', '%+', '%H:%M:%S%.f %m-%d-%Y');
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| to_timestamp_micros(Utf8("03:59:00.123456789 05-17-2023"),Utf8("%c"),Utf8("%+"),Utf8("%H:%M:%S%.f %m-%d-%Y")) |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 2023-05-17T03:59:00.123456                                                                                    |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Additional examples can be found here

to_timestamp_nanos

Converts a value to a timestamp (YYYY-MM-DDT00:00:00.000000000Z). Supports strings, integer, and unsigned integer types as input. Strings are parsed as RFC3339 (e.g. ‘2023-07-20T05:44:00’) if no Chrono formats are provided. Integers and unsigned integers are interpreted as nanoseconds since the unix epoch (1970-01-01T00:00:00Z). Returns the corresponding timestamp.

to_timestamp_nanos(expression[, ..., format_n])

Arguments

  • expression: Expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

  • format_n: Optional Chrono format strings to use to parse the expression. Formats will be tried in the order they appear with the first successful one being returned. If none of the formats successfully parse the expression an error will be returned.

Example

> select to_timestamp_nanos('2023-01-31T09:26:56.123456789-05:00');
+-----------------------------------------------------------------+
| to_timestamp_nanos(Utf8("2023-01-31T09:26:56.123456789-05:00")) |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------+
| 2023-01-31T14:26:56.123456789                                   |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------+
> select to_timestamp_nanos('03:59:00.123456789 05-17-2023', '%c', '%+', '%H:%M:%S%.f %m-%d-%Y');
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| to_timestamp_nanos(Utf8("03:59:00.123456789 05-17-2023"),Utf8("%c"),Utf8("%+"),Utf8("%H:%M:%S%.f %m-%d-%Y")) |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 2023-05-17T03:59:00.123456789                                                                                |
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Additional examples can be found here

to_timestamp_seconds

Converts a value to a timestamp (YYYY-MM-DDT00:00:00.000Z). Supports strings, integer, and unsigned integer types as input. Strings are parsed as RFC3339 (e.g. ‘2023-07-20T05:44:00’) if no Chrono formats are provided. Integers and unsigned integers are interpreted as seconds since the unix epoch (1970-01-01T00:00:00Z). Returns the corresponding timestamp.

to_timestamp_seconds(expression[, ..., format_n])

Arguments

  • expression: Expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

  • format_n: Optional Chrono format strings to use to parse the expression. Formats will be tried in the order they appear with the first successful one being returned. If none of the formats successfully parse the expression an error will be returned.

Example

> select to_timestamp_seconds('2023-01-31T09:26:56.123456789-05:00');
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| to_timestamp_seconds(Utf8("2023-01-31T09:26:56.123456789-05:00")) |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 2023-01-31T14:26:56                                               |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
> select to_timestamp_seconds('03:59:00.123456789 05-17-2023', '%c', '%+', '%H:%M:%S%.f %m-%d-%Y');
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| to_timestamp_seconds(Utf8("03:59:00.123456789 05-17-2023"),Utf8("%c"),Utf8("%+"),Utf8("%H:%M:%S%.f %m-%d-%Y")) |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 2023-05-17T03:59:00                                                                                            |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Additional examples can be found here

from_unixtime

Converts an integer to RFC3339 timestamp format (YYYY-MM-DDT00:00:00.000000000Z). Integers and unsigned integers are interpreted as nanoseconds since the unix epoch (1970-01-01T00:00:00Z) return the corresponding timestamp.

from_unixtime(expression)

Arguments

  • expression: Expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

to_unixtime

Converts a value to seconds since the unix epoch (1970-01-01T00:00:00Z). Supports strings, dates, timestamps and double types as input. Strings are parsed as RFC3339 (e.g. ‘2023-07-20T05:44:00’) if no [Chrono formats] are provided.

to_unixtime(expression[, ..., format_n])

Arguments

  • expression: Expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic operators.

  • format_n: Optional Chrono format strings to use to parse the expression. Formats will be tried in the order they appear with the first successful one being returned. If none of the formats successfully parse the expression an error will be returned.

Example

> select to_unixtime('2020-09-08T12:00:00+00:00');
+------------------------------------------------+
| to_unixtime(Utf8("2020-09-08T12:00:00+00:00")) |
+------------------------------------------------+
| 1599566400                                     |
+------------------------------------------------+
> select to_unixtime('01-14-2023 01:01:30+05:30', '%q', '%d-%m-%Y %H/%M/%S', '%+', '%m-%d-%Y %H:%M:%S%#z');
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| to_unixtime(Utf8("01-14-2023 01:01:30+05:30"),Utf8("%q"),Utf8("%d-%m-%Y %H/%M/%S"),Utf8("%+"),Utf8("%m-%d-%Y %H:%M:%S%#z")) |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 1673638290                                                                                                                  |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Array Functions

array_append

Appends an element to the end of an array.

array_append(array, element)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • element: Element to append to the array.

Example

> select array_append([1, 2, 3], 4);
+--------------------------------------+
| array_append(List([1,2,3]),Int64(4)) |
+--------------------------------------+
| [1, 2, 3, 4]                         |
+--------------------------------------+

Aliases

  • array_push_back

  • list_append

  • list_push_back

array_sort

Sort array.

array_sort(array, desc, nulls_first)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • desc: Whether to sort in descending order(ASC or DESC).

  • nulls_first: Whether to sort nulls first(NULLS FIRST or NULLS LAST).

Example

> select array_sort([3, 1, 2]);
+-----------------------------+
| array_sort(List([3,1,2]))   |
+-----------------------------+
| [1, 2, 3]                   |
+-----------------------------+

Aliases

  • list_sort

array_resize

Resizes the list to contain size elements. Initializes new elements with value or empty if value is not set.

array_resize(array, size, value)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • size: New size of given array.

  • value: Defines new elements’ value or empty if value is not set.

Example

> select array_resize([1, 2, 3], 5, 0);
+-------------------------------------+
| array_resize(List([1,2,3],5,0))     |
+-------------------------------------+
| [1, 2, 3, 0, 0]                     |
+-------------------------------------+

Aliases

  • list_resize

array_cat

Alias of array_concat.

array_concat

Concatenates arrays.

array_concat(array[, ..., array_n])

Arguments

  • array: Array expression to concatenate. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • array_n: Subsequent array column or literal array to concatenate.

Example

> select array_concat([1, 2], [3, 4], [5, 6]);
+---------------------------------------------------+
| array_concat(List([1,2]),List([3,4]),List([5,6])) |
+---------------------------------------------------+
| [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]                                |
+---------------------------------------------------+

Aliases

  • array_cat

  • list_cat

  • list_concat

array_contains

Alias of array_has.

array_has

Returns true if the array contains the element

array_has(array, element)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • element: Scalar or Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

Aliases

  • list_has

array_has_all

Returns true if all elements of sub-array exist in array

array_has_all(array, sub-array)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • sub-array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

Aliases

  • list_has_all

array_has_any

Returns true if any elements exist in both arrays

array_has_any(array, sub-array)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • sub-array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

Aliases

  • list_has_any

array_dims

Returns an array of the array’s dimensions.

array_dims(array)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

Example

> select array_dims([[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]);
+---------------------------------+
| array_dims(List([1,2,3,4,5,6])) |
+---------------------------------+
| [2, 3]                          |
+---------------------------------+

Aliases

  • list_dims

array_distinct

Returns distinct values from the array after removing duplicates.

array_distinct(array)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

Example

> select array_distinct([1, 3, 2, 3, 1, 2, 4]);
+---------------------------------+
| array_distinct(List([1,2,3,4])) |
+---------------------------------+
| [1, 2, 3, 4]                    |
+---------------------------------+

Aliases

  • list_distinct

array_element

Extracts the element with the index n from the array.

array_element(array, index)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • index: Index to extract the element from the array.

Example

> select array_element([1, 2, 3, 4], 3);
+-----------------------------------------+
| array_element(List([1,2,3,4]),Int64(3)) |
+-----------------------------------------+
| 3                                       |
+-----------------------------------------+

Aliases

  • array_extract

  • list_element

  • list_extract

array_extract

Alias of array_element.

array_fill

Returns an array filled with copies of the given value.

DEPRECATED: use array_repeat instead!

array_fill(element, array)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • element: Element to copy to the array.

flatten

Converts an array of arrays to a flat array

  • Applies to any depth of nested arrays

  • Does not change arrays that are already flat

The flattened array contains all the elements from all source arrays.

Arguments

  • array: Array expression Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

flatten(array)

array_indexof

Alias of array_position.

array_intersect

Returns an array of elements in the intersection of array1 and array2.

array_intersect(array1, array2)

Arguments

  • array1: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • array2: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

Example

> select array_intersect([1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 3, 4]);
+----------------------------------------------------+
| array_intersect([1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 3, 4]);       |
+----------------------------------------------------+
| [3, 4]                                             |
+----------------------------------------------------+
> select array_intersect([1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7, 8]);
+----------------------------------------------------+
| array_intersect([1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7, 8]);       |
+----------------------------------------------------+
| []                                                 |
+----------------------------------------------------+

Aliases

  • list_intersect

array_join

Alias of array_to_string.

array_length

Returns the length of the array dimension.

array_length(array, dimension)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • dimension: Array dimension.

Example

> select array_length([1, 2, 3, 4, 5]);
+---------------------------------+
| array_length(List([1,2,3,4,5])) |
+---------------------------------+
| 5                               |
+---------------------------------+

Aliases

  • list_length

array_ndims

Returns the number of dimensions of the array.

array_ndims(array, element)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

Example

> select array_ndims([[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]);
+----------------------------------+
| array_ndims(List([1,2,3,4,5,6])) |
+----------------------------------+
| 2                                |
+----------------------------------+

Aliases

  • list_ndims

array_prepend

Prepends an element to the beginning of an array.

array_prepend(element, array)

Arguments

  • element: Element to prepend to the array.

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

Example

> select array_prepend(1, [2, 3, 4]);
+---------------------------------------+
| array_prepend(Int64(1),List([2,3,4])) |
+---------------------------------------+
| [1, 2, 3, 4]                          |
+---------------------------------------+

Aliases

  • array_push_front

  • list_prepend

  • list_push_front

array_pop_front

Returns the array without the first element.

array_pop_front(array)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

Example

> select array_pop_front([1, 2, 3]);
+-------------------------------+
| array_pop_front(List([1,2,3])) |
+-------------------------------+
| [2, 3]                        |
+-------------------------------+

Aliases

  • list_pop_front

array_pop_back

Returns the array without the last element.

array_pop_back(array)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

Example

> select array_pop_back([1, 2, 3]);
+-------------------------------+
| array_pop_back(List([1,2,3])) |
+-------------------------------+
| [1, 2]                        |
+-------------------------------+

Aliases

  • list_pop_back

array_position

Returns the position of the first occurrence of the specified element in the array.

array_position(array, element)
array_position(array, element, index)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • element: Element to search for position in the array.

  • index: Index at which to start searching.

Example

> select array_position([1, 2, 2, 3, 1, 4], 2);
+----------------------------------------------+
| array_position(List([1,2,2,3,1,4]),Int64(2)) |
+----------------------------------------------+
| 2                                            |
+----------------------------------------------+

Aliases

  • array_indexof

  • list_indexof

  • list_position

array_positions

Searches for an element in the array, returns all occurrences.

array_positions(array, element)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • element: Element to search for positions in the array.

Example

> select array_positions([1, 2, 2, 3, 1, 4], 2);
+-----------------------------------------------+
| array_positions(List([1,2,2,3,1,4]),Int64(2)) |
+-----------------------------------------------+
| [2, 3]                                        |
+-----------------------------------------------+

Aliases

  • list_positions

array_push_back

Alias of array_append.

array_push_front

Alias of array_prepend.

array_repeat

Returns an array containing element count times.

array_repeat(element, count)

Arguments

  • element: Element expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • count: Value of how many times to repeat the element.

Example

> select array_repeat(1, 3);
+---------------------------------+
| array_repeat(Int64(1),Int64(3)) |
+---------------------------------+
| [1, 1, 1]                       |
+---------------------------------+
> select array_repeat([1, 2], 2);
+------------------------------------+
| array_repeat(List([1,2]),Int64(2)) |
+------------------------------------+
| [[1, 2], [1, 2]]                   |
+------------------------------------+

Aliases

  • list_repeat

array_remove

Removes the first element from the array equal to the given value.

array_remove(array, element)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • element: Element to be removed from the array.

Example

> select array_remove([1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 1, 4], 2);
+----------------------------------------------+
| array_remove(List([1,2,2,3,2,1,4]),Int64(2)) |
+----------------------------------------------+
| [1, 2, 3, 2, 1, 4]                           |
+----------------------------------------------+

Aliases

  • list_remove

array_remove_n

Removes the first max elements from the array equal to the given value.

array_remove_n(array, element, max)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • element: Element to be removed from the array.

  • max: Number of first occurrences to remove.

Example

> select array_remove_n([1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 1, 4], 2, 2);
+---------------------------------------------------------+
| array_remove_n(List([1,2,2,3,2,1,4]),Int64(2),Int64(2)) |
+---------------------------------------------------------+
| [1, 3, 2, 1, 4]                                         |
+---------------------------------------------------------+

Aliases

  • list_remove_n

array_remove_all

Removes all elements from the array equal to the given value.

array_remove_all(array, element)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • element: Element to be removed from the array.

Example

> select array_remove_all([1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 1, 4], 2);
+--------------------------------------------------+
| array_remove_all(List([1,2,2,3,2,1,4]),Int64(2)) |
+--------------------------------------------------+
| [1, 3, 1, 4]                                     |
+--------------------------------------------------+

Aliases

  • list_remove_all

array_replace

Replaces the first occurrence of the specified element with another specified element.

array_replace(array, from, to)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • from: Initial element.

  • to: Final element.

Example

> select array_replace([1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 1, 4], 2, 5);
+--------------------------------------------------------+
| array_replace(List([1,2,2,3,2,1,4]),Int64(2),Int64(5)) |
+--------------------------------------------------------+
| [1, 5, 2, 3, 2, 1, 4]                                  |
+--------------------------------------------------------+

Aliases

  • list_replace

array_replace_n

Replaces the first max occurrences of the specified element with another specified element.

array_replace_n(array, from, to, max)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • from: Initial element.

  • to: Final element.

  • max: Number of first occurrences to replace.

Example

> select array_replace_n([1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 1, 4], 2, 5, 2);
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| array_replace_n(List([1,2,2,3,2,1,4]),Int64(2),Int64(5),Int64(2)) |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| [1, 5, 5, 3, 2, 1, 4]                                             |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+

Aliases

  • list_replace_n

array_replace_all

Replaces all occurrences of the specified element with another specified element.

array_replace_all(array, from, to)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • from: Initial element.

  • to: Final element.

Example

> select array_replace_all([1, 2, 2, 3, 2, 1, 4], 2, 5);
+------------------------------------------------------------+
| array_replace_all(List([1,2,2,3,2,1,4]),Int64(2),Int64(5)) |
+------------------------------------------------------------+
| [1, 5, 5, 3, 5, 1, 4]                                      |
+------------------------------------------------------------+

Aliases

  • list_replace_all

array_reverse

Returns the array with the order of the elements reversed.

array_reverse(array)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

Example

> select array_reverse([1, 2, 3, 4]);
+------------------------------------------------------------+
| array_reverse(List([1, 2, 3, 4]))                          |
+------------------------------------------------------------+
| [4, 3, 2, 1]                                               |
+------------------------------------------------------------+

Aliases

  • list_reverse

array_slice

Returns a slice of the array based on 1-indexed start and end positions.

array_slice(array, begin, end)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • begin: Index of the first element. If negative, it counts backward from the end of the array.

  • end: Index of the last element. If negative, it counts backward from the end of the array.

  • stride: Stride of the array slice. The default is 1.

Example

> select array_slice([1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8], 3, 6);
+--------------------------------------------------------+
| array_slice(List([1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]),Int64(3),Int64(6)) |
+--------------------------------------------------------+
| [3, 4, 5, 6]                                           |
+--------------------------------------------------------+

Aliases

  • list_slice

array_to_string

Converts each element to its text representation.

array_to_string(array, delimiter)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • delimiter: Array element separator.

Example

> select array_to_string([[1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7, 8]], ',');
+----------------------------------------------------+
| array_to_string(List([1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]),Utf8(",")) |
+----------------------------------------------------+
| 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8                                    |
+----------------------------------------------------+

Aliases

  • array_join

  • list_join

  • list_to_string

array_union

Returns an array of elements that are present in both arrays (all elements from both arrays) with out duplicates.

array_union(array1, array2)

Arguments

  • array1: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • array2: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

Example

> select array_union([1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 3, 4]);
+----------------------------------------------------+
| array_union([1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 3, 4]);           |
+----------------------------------------------------+
| [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]                                 |
+----------------------------------------------------+
> select array_union([1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7, 8]);
+----------------------------------------------------+
| array_union([1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7, 8]);           |
+----------------------------------------------------+
| [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]                           |
+----------------------------------------------------+

Aliases

  • list_union

array_except

Returns an array of the elements that appear in the first array but not in the second.

array_except(array1, array2)

Arguments

  • array1: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • array2: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

Example

> select array_except([1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 3, 4]);
+----------------------------------------------------+
| array_except([1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 3, 4]);           |
+----------------------------------------------------+
| [1, 2]                                 |
+----------------------------------------------------+
> select array_except([1, 2, 3, 4], [3, 4, 5, 6]);
+----------------------------------------------------+
| array_except([1, 2, 3, 4], [3, 4, 5, 6]);           |
+----------------------------------------------------+
| [1, 2]                                 |
+----------------------------------------------------+

Aliases

  • list_except

cardinality

Returns the total number of elements in the array.

cardinality(array)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

Example

> select cardinality([[1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7, 8]]);
+--------------------------------------+
| cardinality(List([1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8])) |
+--------------------------------------+
| 8                                    |
+--------------------------------------+

empty

Returns 1 for an empty array or 0 for a non-empty array.

empty(array)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

Example

> select empty([1]);
+------------------+
| empty(List([1])) |
+------------------+
| 0                |
+------------------+

Aliases

  • array_empty,

  • list_empty

generate_series

Similar to the range function, but it includes the upper bound.

generate_series(start, stop, step)

Arguments

  • start: start of the range

  • end: end of the range (included)

  • step: increase by step (can not be 0)

Example

> select generate_series(1,3);
+------------------------------------+
| generate_series(Int64(1),Int64(3)) |
+------------------------------------+
| [1, 2, 3]                          |
+------------------------------------+

list_append

Alias of array_append.

list_cat

Alias of array_concat.

list_concat

Alias of array_concat.

list_dims

Alias of array_dims.

list_distinct

Alias of array_dims.

list_element

Alias of array_element.

list_empty

Alias of empty.

list_except

Alias of array_element.

list_extract

Alias of array_element.

list_has

Alias of array_has.

list_has_all

Alias of array_has_all.

list_has_any

Alias of array_has_any.

list_indexof

Alias of array_position.

list_intersect

Alias of array_position.

list_join

Alias of array_to_string.

list_length

Alias of array_length.

list_ndims

Alias of array_ndims.

list_prepend

Alias of array_prepend.

list_pop_back

Alias of array_pop_back.

list_pop_front

Alias of array_pop_front.

list_position

Alias of array_position.

list_positions

Alias of array_positions.

list_push_back

Alias of array_append.

list_push_front

Alias of array_prepend.

list_repeat

Alias of array_repeat.

list_resize

Alias of array_resize.

list_remove

Alias of array_remove.

list_remove_n

Alias of array_remove_n.

list_remove_all

Alias of array_remove_all.

list_replace

Alias of array_replace.

list_replace_n

Alias of array_replace_n.

list_replace_all

Alias of array_replace_all.

list_reverse

Alias of array_reverse.

list_slice

Alias of array_slice.

list_sort

Alias of array_sort.

list_to_string

Alias of array_to_string.

list_union

Alias of array_union.

make_array

Returns an Arrow array using the specified input expressions.

make_array(expression1[, ..., expression_n])

array_empty

Alias of empty.

Arguments

  • expression_n: Expression to include in the output array. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic or string operators.

Example

> select make_array(1, 2, 3, 4, 5);
+----------------------------------------------------------+
| make_array(Int64(1),Int64(2),Int64(3),Int64(4),Int64(5)) |
+----------------------------------------------------------+
| [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]                                          |
+----------------------------------------------------------+

Aliases

  • make_list

make_list

Alias of make_array.

string_to_array

Splits a string in to an array of substrings based on a delimiter. Any substrings matching the optional null_str argument are replaced with NULL. SELECT string_to_array('abc##def', '##') or SELECT string_to_array('abc def', ' ', 'def')

starts_with(str, delimiter[, null_str])

Arguments

  • str: String expression to split.

  • delimiter: Delimiter string to split on.

  • null_str: Substring values to be replaced with NULL

Aliases

  • string_to_list

string_to_list

Alias of string_to_array.

trim_array

Removes the last n elements from the array.

DEPRECATED: use array_slice instead!

trim_array(array, n)

Arguments

  • array: Array expression. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of array operators.

  • n: Element to trim the array.

range

Returns an Arrow array between start and stop with step. SELECT range(2, 10, 3) -> [2, 5, 8] or SELECT range(DATE '1992-09-01', DATE '1993-03-01', INTERVAL '1' MONTH);

The range start..end contains all values with start <= x < end. It is empty if start >= end.

Step can not be 0 (then the range will be nonsense.).

Note that when the required range is a number, it accepts (stop), (start, stop), and (start, stop, step) as parameters, but when the required range is a date, it must be 3 non-NULL parameters. For example,

SELECT range(3);
SELECT range(1,5);
SELECT range(1,5,1);

are allowed in number ranges

but in date ranges, only

SELECT range(DATE '1992-09-01', DATE '1993-03-01', INTERVAL '1' MONTH);

is allowed, and

SELECT range(DATE '1992-09-01', DATE '1993-03-01', NULL);
SELECT range(NULL, DATE '1993-03-01', INTERVAL '1' MONTH);
SELECT range(DATE '1992-09-01', NULL, INTERVAL '1' MONTH);

are not allowed

Arguments

  • start: start of the range

  • end: end of the range (not included)

  • step: increase by step (can not be 0)

Aliases

  • generate_series

Struct Functions

struct

Returns an Arrow struct using the specified input expressions optionally named. Fields in the returned struct use the optional name or the cN naming convention. For example: c0, c1, c2, etc.

struct(expression1[, ..., expression_n])

For example, this query converts two columns a and b to a single column with a struct type of fields field_a and c1:

select * from t;
+---+---+
| a | b |
+---+---+
| 1 | 2 |
| 3 | 4 |
+---+---+

-- use default names `c0`, `c1`
> select struct(a, b) from t;
+-----------------+
| struct(t.a,t.b) |
+-----------------+
| {c0: 1, c1: 2}  |
| {c0: 3, c1: 4}  |
+-----------------+

-- name the first field `field_a`
select struct(a as field_a, b) from t;
+--------------------------------------------------+
| named_struct(Utf8("field_a"),t.a,Utf8("c1"),t.b) |
+--------------------------------------------------+
| {field_a: 1, c1: 2}                              |
| {field_a: 3, c1: 4}                              |
+--------------------------------------------------+

Arguments

  • expression_n: Expression to include in the output struct. Can be a constant, column, or function, any combination of arithmetic or string operators, or a named expression of previous listed .

named_struct

Returns an Arrow struct using the specified name and input expressions pairs.

named_struct(expression1_name, expression1_input[, ..., expression_n_name, expression_n_input])

For example, this query converts two columns a and b to a single column with a struct type of fields field_a and field_b:

select * from t;
+---+---+
| a | b |
+---+---+
| 1 | 2 |
| 3 | 4 |
+---+---+

select named_struct('field_a', a, 'field_b', b) from t;
+-------------------------------------------------------+
| named_struct(Utf8("field_a"),t.a,Utf8("field_b"),t.b) |
+-------------------------------------------------------+
| {field_a: 1, field_b: 2}                              |
| {field_a: 3, field_b: 4}                              |
+-------------------------------------------------------+

Arguments

  • expression_n_name: Name of the column field. Must be a constant string.

  • expression_n_input: Expression to include in the output struct. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic or string operators.

Hashing Functions

digest

Computes the binary hash of an expression using the specified algorithm.

digest(expression, algorithm)

Arguments

  • expression: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

  • algorithm: String expression specifying algorithm to use. Must be one of:

    • md5

    • sha224

    • sha256

    • sha384

    • sha512

    • blake2s

    • blake2b

    • blake3

md5

Computes an MD5 128-bit checksum for a string expression.

md5(expression)

Arguments

  • expression: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

sha224

Computes the SHA-224 hash of a binary string.

sha224(expression)

Arguments

  • expression: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

sha256

Computes the SHA-256 hash of a binary string.

sha256(expression)

Arguments

  • expression: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

sha384

Computes the SHA-384 hash of a binary string.

sha384(expression)

Arguments

  • expression: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

sha512

Computes the SHA-512 hash of a binary string.

sha512(expression)

Arguments

  • expression: String expression to operate on. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of string operators.

Other Functions

arrow_cast

Casts a value to a specific Arrow data type:

arrow_cast(expression, datatype)

Arguments

  • expression: Expression to cast. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic or string operators.

  • datatype: Arrow data type name to cast to, as a string. The format is the same as that returned by [arrow_typeof]

Example

> select arrow_cast(-5, 'Int8') as a,
  arrow_cast('foo', 'Dictionary(Int32, Utf8)') as b,
  arrow_cast('bar', 'LargeUtf8') as c,
  arrow_cast('2023-01-02T12:53:02', 'Timestamp(Microsecond, Some("+08:00"))') as d
  ;
+----+-----+-----+---------------------------+
| a  | b   | c   | d                         |
+----+-----+-----+---------------------------+
| -5 | foo | bar | 2023-01-02T12:53:02+08:00 |
+----+-----+-----+---------------------------+
1 row in set. Query took 0.001 seconds.

arrow_typeof

Returns the name of the underlying Arrow data type of the expression:

arrow_typeof(expression)

Arguments

  • expression: Expression to evaluate. Can be a constant, column, or function, and any combination of arithmetic or string operators.

Example

> select arrow_typeof('foo'), arrow_typeof(1);
+---------------------------+------------------------+
| arrow_typeof(Utf8("foo")) | arrow_typeof(Int64(1)) |
+---------------------------+------------------------+
| Utf8                      | Int64                  |
+---------------------------+------------------------+
1 row in set. Query took 0.001 seconds.